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How Does a Solar Inverter Synchronize with Grid?

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In today’s world, where renewable energy is becoming more important, solar power stands out as a top choice. It’s clean, plentiful, and sustainable, perfect for both homes and businesses. A key part of any solar power setup is the solar inverter.

This device doesn’t just change the solar panel’s direct current (DC) to usable alternating current (AC), but it also helps connect the solar system’s power with the main electricity grid. In this article, we’ll explore how solar inverters make this connection and why it matters.

What Is Grid Synchronization?

Synchronization is a process to integrate the existing grid conditions with a renewable energy system’s output. Its role is to avail consumers with a consistent and stable power supply.

One of the most necessary equipment in such a setup is the grid-tie inverter. Its role is to convert the direct current (DC) from the solar system into an alternating current (AC).

Equally important, your solar inverter will feed excess power to the grid. That’s where grid synchronization comes in, as the output voltage and frequency of the inverter must match that of the grid it feeds.

The solar system’s power fluctuates due to various factors, including weather. If the energy increases, the output will output more and inject the excess into the main grid.

Major Components of Grid Synchronization

Two things significantly come into play when the grid synchronizes your solar system. They are as follows;


It is also known as the electric grid or the power grid. It is a collection of wires and machinery responsible for generating and supplying home electricity.

The grid has two main components for generating and transmitting power, respectively. Each category has its role and equipment to help it achieve its goal.

For instance, the generation part of the grid involves solar panels, hydroelectric dams, wind turbines, nuclear power plants, gas turbines and coal plants. On the other hand, the wires, transformers and substations are responsible for the transmission.

The components are meant to ensure that the generated power reaches the homes. The process involves carrying electrons from power-generating plants to homes for use.

Solar Inverter

A solar inverter is a device that converts DC to AC. Did you know that the solar system produces DC?

On the other hand, the grid uses AC, which explains why the solar inverter is a crucial component of grid synchronization. It ensures that the solar power turns into AC to match what the power grid uses.

The Importance of Grid Synchronization

Installing a solar panel system presents a unique opportunity for energy independence, yet synchronizing it with the power grid enhances reliability and efficiency.

This dual-source approach harnesses solar energy while maintaining a connection to the traditional electric grid, effectively creating a hybrid power solution.

The primary reason for this synchronization is the inherent variability of solar power.

While solar panels can generate ample energy during sunny periods, their output diminishes under cloudy conditions or at night. By linking your solar inverter to the grid, you ensure a continuous power supply, as the grid can compensate when solar production is insufficient.

This guarantees that your home always has the necessary energy to run appliances and devices seamlessly.

Moreover, grid synchronization isn’t just about supplementing your energy needs; it’s also a smart strategy for maximizing the utility of generated solar power.

There are instances when your solar system produces more electricity than your household consumes. In such scenarios, the excess energy can be fed back into the grid.

This not only prevents wastage of renewable energy but also supports the broader community by contributing to the shared power pool.

An often overlooked yet significant benefit of this system is its financial impact. Most grid-connected solar systems are equipped with a net metering arrangement.

Under net metering, any surplus energy sent to the grid effectively turns your meter backwards, reducing your utility bill. This reciprocal exchange not only offsets your energy costs but also promotes a more sustainable and balanced energy ecosystem.

How Does a Solar Inverter Synchronize with the Grid?

How a solar inverter carries out grid synchronization depends on its working mechanism. Solar inverters work differently, and there are different grid synchronization methods.

Synchroscope Grid Synchronization Method

The main equipment in this synchronization method is the synchroscope. It is responsible for comparing the two alternators’ voltages, and it is worth noting that the pair runs parallel.

The findings of that comparison determine the cause of action. For instance, if the two alternators register the same voltage, the pair is said to be in phase, which means it can run synchronously.

On the other hand, two different voltages from the two alternators indicate that the duo is out of phase. Under such circumstances, don’t expect the alternators to run synchronously.

Consequently, some adjustments are necessary to fix the situation at hand. If the inverter outlet shows high voltage, it shuts down as a protective measure because of safety concerns.

Two Bright, One Dark Grid Synchronization Method

The working mechanism of this synchronization method is similar to that of its synchroscope method. It also involves two alternators that run parallel.

The pair can only run synchronously if these alternators have the same voltage since that’s when they are in phase. Failure to record the same voltage means an adjustment is necessary, or they will remain out of phase, thus making running synchronously impossible.

Three Dark Lamps Grid Synchronization Method

On the other hand, this grid synchronization method involves three alternators. These three are also running parallel.

At any one point, the alternators must also register the same voltages to run synchronously since they can only be in phase. Out of the three, the one with a different voltage will be adjusted.

The other two with the same voltages are in phase and thus run synchronously. Consequently, an adjustment is unnecessary.

All the 3 synchronization methods are undeniably similar. Besides the components, the concept is the same since they compare voltages and adjust them accordingly to ensure the parallel alternators have the same voltage.